Summary of CAD Medications

Summary of CAD Medications
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Avoiding cold conditions, dressing appropriately for the cold, or living in warm climates is often sufficient to manage mild cases of cold agglutinin disease (CAD). However, if you have a more severe case of the disease, you may require medical treatment. Here’s a summary of those medications.

About CAD

CAD is a rare autoimmune disorder in which exposure to cold temperatures, those between 32 and 50 F (0 and 10 C), causes autoantibodies called cold agglutinins to bind tightly to red blood cells, inducing their lysis (disintegration) and resulting in anemia.

The disease, which commonly affects adults who are middle age or older, may manifest as a primary disease, in which the underlying cause is not known, or as a secondary disease likely due to bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, certain types of cancer, or other autoimmune diseases.

CAD treatment

The treatment of CAD depends on how serious the case is. While the term “cold” mainly refers to the biological properties of the cold agglutinins, rather than to a clinical state, most scientists agree that it makes sense to follow recommendations and protect against exposure to cold.

In secondary CAD, treatments target the underlying disorder and this could be sufficient for symptoms to go away.

There are four main classes of CAD treatments: immunosuppressants, monoclonal antibodies, erythropoietin, and water-soluble vitamins.

Immunosuppressive medications

This class of medicines suppresses the body’s immune system.

Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressant that is usually used alone or in combination with other medications to treat cancer and other disorders. Your doctor may combine it with rituximab when other approaches are ineffective for treating CAD.

Monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-made proteins that mimic the immune system’s ability to fight off harmful antigens.

Rituximab is a first-line CAD treatment. It is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that depletes immune cells called B-cells. Such depletion interferes with the production of cold agglutinins. Over time, this can result in an improvement in hemoglobin levels. A course of treatment is usually one infusion weekly for four weeks.

When rituximab is ineffective by itself, doctors may combine it with a chemotherapeutic agent such as fludarabine, a small molecule the body metabolizes into a molecule that blocks DNA synthesis.

Erythropoietins

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that the kidneys produce to make red blood cells. Doctors often prescribe EPOs to treat anemia in CAD.

Procrit, Epogen, and Aranesp are among EPOs that doctors may prescribe for CAD to help the body produce more red blood cells to offset their loss in severe forms of CAD.

It typically takes about two to six weeks after starting treatment to see a marked increase in red blood cell counts.

Water-soluble vitamins

Your doctor may also prescribe folic acid (or vitamin B) supplements because it is essential for the formation of red blood cells.

 

Last updated: Dec. 17, 2020

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Cold Agglutinin Disease News is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

Mary M. Chapman began her professional career at United Press International, running both print and broadcast desks. She then became a Michigan correspondent for what is now Bloomberg BNA, where she mainly covered the automotive industry plus legal, tax and regulatory issues. A member of the Automotive Press Association and one of a relatively small number of women on the car beat, Chapman has discussed the automotive industry multiple times of National Public Radio, and in 2014 was selected as an honorary judge at the prestigious Cobble Beach Concours d’Elegance. She has written for numerous national outlets including Time, People, Al-Jazeera America, Fortune, Daily Beast, MSN.com, Newsweek, The Detroit News and Detroit Free Press. The winner of the Society of Professional Journalists award for outstanding reporting, Chapman has had dozens of articles in The New York Times, including two on the coveted front page. She has completed a manuscript about centenarian car enthusiast Margaret Dunning, titled “Belle of the Concours.”
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Özge has a MSc. in Molecular Genetics from the University of Leicester and a PhD in Developmental Biology from Queen Mary University of London. She worked as a Post-doctoral Research Associate at the University of Leicester for six years in the field of Behavioural Neurology before moving into science communication. She worked as the Research Communication Officer at a London based charity for almost two years.
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Mary M. Chapman began her professional career at United Press International, running both print and broadcast desks. She then became a Michigan correspondent for what is now Bloomberg BNA, where she mainly covered the automotive industry plus legal, tax and regulatory issues. A member of the Automotive Press Association and one of a relatively small number of women on the car beat, Chapman has discussed the automotive industry multiple times of National Public Radio, and in 2014 was selected as an honorary judge at the prestigious Cobble Beach Concours d’Elegance. She has written for numerous national outlets including Time, People, Al-Jazeera America, Fortune, Daily Beast, MSN.com, Newsweek, The Detroit News and Detroit Free Press. The winner of the Society of Professional Journalists award for outstanding reporting, Chapman has had dozens of articles in The New York Times, including two on the coveted front page. She has completed a manuscript about centenarian car enthusiast Margaret Dunning, titled “Belle of the Concours.”
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